1 Agriculture occupies a dominant place in the economy of Manipur. It is not only the main source of livelihood of the majority of the population of the State, but also a traditional way of life, enjoying a place of pride in the socio-economic life of the State. About 52 percent of the total workers depends on Agriculture. In spite of the role-played by this important sector, the data base of this sector is very weak.
2With a view to provide, at least the minimum –need data on crop statistics, the Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of Manipur started the survey on land utilisation and crop cutting experiments from the year 1963-64 by participating in the National Sample Survey Programme of the Government of India on full matching basis, the erstwhile Mao, Tamenglong and Ukhrul Sub-Divisions of Manipur were not covered by the all India programme of the National Sample Survey (NSS) upto 1969-70.
3From 1970-71 onwards, the whole of Manipur was covered by the NSS programme. During the period from 1963-64 to 1979-90, the land utilisation survey (cropped land survey) and the crop cutting experiments were conducted in the sample villages, selected for the socio-economic surveys of NSS programme.
4The all-India programme of Land Utilisation Survey (cropped land survey) and crop cutting experiments were discontinued from 1980-81 but the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Manipur continued the 2(two) surveys as a State programme in order to meet the needs of the State as there was no crop recording system in the State of Manipur. Again from the year 1985-86, collection of additional information on irrigation; variety of seed used and type of cultivation etc. was also started.
5From 1980-81 to 1986-87 the selection of villages was made for each district separately. Since the hill areas were not cadastrally surveyed, double weightage were given in the determination of sample size. The sample villages were selected in the form of two independent sub-samples by following the technique of interpenetrating sampling.
6From 1987-88 the survey is termed as Crop Estimation Survey (CES) and the selection of villages has been made by taking the development blocks of the valley districts as separate strata. In other words, villages are selected for each development blocks separately for conducting the Crop Estimation Survey. However, for the hill areas, the selection of villages is carried out at the district levels.
7From 2000-2001 onwards, the selection of villages for the hill areas is also carried out at the Block level as separate strata. However, for 2005-06 and 2006-07, the selection of sampling units for both hills and valley areas are carried out at the sub-division level as separate strata.
8 Crop Cutting Experiments were conducted in two concentric circles of radii 2′ 3″(0.686m) and 4′ (1.219m) from 1963-64 to 1969-70. The demarcation of the experimental unit(plot) were carried out with the help of a metallic instrument, specially made for the purpose under the direction of the I.S.I. Calcutta .
9From 1970-71 to 1983-84, the crop cutting experiments were carried out in three concentric circles of radii 2′ 3″ (0.686 m.), 4′ (1.219m) and 5′ 9″ (1.784m). The total area of the experimental unit was 10 sq. m. which constituted 1/1000 (one by one thousand) part of a hectare.
10From 1984-85 onwards, the system of demarcating the experimental unit (plot) has been changed from the concentric circles to a square unit of 5m x 5m (i.e. 25 sq.m) which is 1/400(one by four hundred) part of a hectare.
11 OBJECTIVE OF CROP ESTIMATION SURVEY:
The main objectives of the crop estimation survey are:
i) to provide estimates of area under and production of principal food and non-food crops with a high degree of precision at the block/ district/state levels.
ii) to provide estimates of productivity of different crop at block/district/state levels.
iii) to collect useful ancillary information on the existing cultivation practices in the State
iv) to throw lights on the cropping pattern of the State/Districts/Blocks etc.
The whole geographical area of the State of Manipur was covered by the Survey.
Crop Estimation Survey (CES) covers all the cereal and non-cereal crops, grown in Manipur but only the cereal crops are covered in the crop-cutting experiments conducted for estimating yield rates.
The months of harvesting in a normal year determined the season of the crop. The survey was conducted in all the four seasons viz. Autumn (July-September) winter (October-December), Spring (January-March) and Summer (April-June) season. July was taken as Summer or Autumn depending on the crop. If harvesting spreads over two seasons that season which covers the larger part of the harvesting will be taken to be the appropriate season for that crop.
15 ORGANISATION OF FIELD WORK:
The Crop Estimation Survey was conducted by the staff of the Agricultural Statistics Section of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Manipur. All the technical works viz. designing of the sampling technique, fixation of sample sizes, allocation of samples to defined strata, selection of sample villages, table scrutiny, imparting of training to the field staff, monitoring of submission of filled-in-schedules, analysis of results etc. were controlled/managed by the Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Manipur.
The field works of the survey were conducted by the Primary Investigators of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Manipur posted in the District Statistical offices. The works of the Primary Investigators were supervised by the Sub-Inspectors/Inspectors under the overall guidance of the of the District Statistical Officers and Assistant Director concerned. The primary workers and also the supervisors were centrally trained at the State Level every year during the month of June.
All the essential equipments required for the field work viz. Measuring tape, ordinary balance, standard weight, spring balance, bag for driage etc. were provided to the .field staff.
17 METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION :
The collection of data for Crop Estimation Survey was carried out by physical/spot visits in all the sample plots of the valley region. In the hill districts all the plots possessed by the selected households living within a radius of 8 kms. from the samples village were surveyed by physical/spot visits, plots falling outside the radius of 8 kms. from the sample village were listed in consultation with the heads of households but not by physical/spot visits.
18 PROCESSING OF DATA :
The data processing operations of the survey were carried out by the officials working in the Agricultural Statistics section at the State HQrs. Office of the Directorate of Economics and Statistics under the supervision of the officers concerned.